Problem: The Digital line (T1/E1) is not spanning up.


There are some usual suspects to consider and here is what to check:
-- Cabling
-- Line configuration ( Framing, Encoding, Protocol )
-- Clocking
-- Signal too strong or weak ( Line Build Out )

Use PikaTest, AoHTest, or GPTest as the application to work with while debugging this issue.

Cabling

The PIKA Getting Started Guide is a good resource for cabling, pin-out diagrams, and LED status descriptions.
* PrimeNet Boards use RJ-48C jacks, not RJ-45. The two connectors are similar, but are wired differently.
When Connecting to a Telco:
-- Usually a straighthru cable is used
Connecting Spans on a board:
Connecting spans back to back on a card requires a Crossover or NULL cable
----- Pins 1,2 = RX
----- Pins 4,5 = TX
----- Cable crossover = 1,2 -> 4,5
 

Digital Logging Board

If you are using a Passive Digital Logging board:
- Only the RX (Receive) pins should be connected via cable
- Clocking is set to Slave and obtained from the monitored line

-- Span 0 = RX pins to one direction of the monitored line
-- Span 1 = RX pins to the other direction of the monitored line

 
Line Configuration

The following parameters must match the other end.
-- Framing
-- Encoding
-- Protocol/End ( Network/Client - opposite to other end)
-----> Telco is usually set to NETWORK for ISDN PBX can be configured as
-----> either Network or Client
-- Line Build Out (LBO)
-----> If co-located with Telco, the setting should probably be 0-110
-----> feet (Default 0dB)

Line Protocol

-- If ISDN, then the D-channel should be on channel 24
-- By Default, NFAS is disabled on the PIKA board
* ISDN
* ISDN Group ( NFAS )
* CAS/RBS/MFR1/MFR2
* Clear Channel
* Other
 
Clocking

It is important to understand how the clock will flow through the network and the system.
Drawing the network connectivity plan will help to decide/predict the clock flow.
--> Clock source can only be derived from 1 place and flow through the deployment.
Scenario 1: All spans from card connected to 1 end device (Telco)
Scenario 2: Spans on single board connected to multiple end points
Scenario 3: H.100 between 2 digital boards
Scenario 4: H.100 between 1 digital and 1 analog board
Scenario 5: H.100 between 4 digital boards
Questions to ask:
-- How many boards in the system
-- How many spans on each board
-- Any analog boards in the system
-- Any 3rd party boards in the system
-- Are all the spans connected to the same End point ? (Telco/PBX/other)
-- Are the spans connected to different Telco feeds or include Telco and PBX connections

Debugging

- Focus on 1 span at a time
- ISDN: Span up is not achieved until both Layer 1 and Layer 2 are working
- CAS and Clear Channel will achieve Frame (UP) if the following are true
-----> Cabling is ok
-----> Line parameters are compatible with the end device
-----> Clocking is ok ( one end is deriving clock from the other )
- To prove that Clocking and Line Parameters are ok, set the protocol to "No Signaling"
-----> Does the Span come up ?
------> Is it a "straight-Thru" cable or "NULL" cable ? Maybe try the other type
-- To see if the line is ISDN, set the protocol to CAS
-----> Are there "phantom" calls on the D-Channel?

Debugging Details:
Modify the pikaconfig to use CAS E&M winkstart. If the card is provisioned correctly when the spans come up, you should see phantom calls on channel 24. These "calls are actually ISDN messages, but they'll look like ABCD bit transitions to the CAS state machine so it will look like calls. That will prove that framing, encoding, line build out is set correctly. If we don't see calls on ch 24, it might mean that the switch is actually provisioned for CAS, or NFAS or SS7.
The other way to debug this is to enable kernel mode logging, install DebugMon (or something similar) and gather logs for L2 messaging.
 
Line Signal - Too Strong or Too Weak

It is important to set the Line Build Out on a span basis to the appropriate level so that the Transmit and Receive signals are good and the signal can be locked "framed".
At times, we have seen that Telco and/or PBX equipment have been provisioned with a Line Build Out that make the signal too strong to "lock" or Frame.
This is not a problem with the board, just a T1/E1 Line setup issue. The Telco/PBX may have to change their Line Build Outs or PAD the line.

Line Build Outs:
-- 0-110 feet: When the PrimeNet MM boards are co-located beside the PBX or a Telco MUX

A T-Bird tester or a volt meter can be used to check the signal level. ( PIKA boards look for a signal of 6 v Peak to Peak, with a tolerance of 20%; thus 4.8 v to 7.2 v Peak to Peak)